A strong peer-reviewed evidence base shows the Arclight to be an effective alternative to traditional, more expensive and bulky tools. This has led to our devices being used by multiple partner organisations and recommendations in the World Health Organisation (WHO) guidelines on newborn eye screening and hearing screening.

Arclight easier to use and preferred to traditional ophthalmoscopes

In several studies Arclight has been found to be easier to use and to perform as well as alternative devices. These studies include:

Hytiris, M.L., Fioratou, E. & Gillan, S.N. The Arclight vs. traditional ophthalmoscope: a cross-over trial. Eye 35, 831–837 (2021). https://doi.org/10.1038/s41433-020-0972-3

In this cross-over trial with University of Dundee medical students with no prior experience of ophthalmology, students performed better with and preferred the Arclight over a ‘traditional’ ophthalmoscope.



James Lowe, Charles R. Cleland, Evarista Mgaya, Godfrey Furahini, Clare E. Gilbert, Matthew J. Burton, Heiko Philippin, "The Arclight Ophthalmoscope: A Reliable Low-Cost Alternative to the Standard Direct Ophthalmoscope", Journal of Ophthalmology, vol. 2015, Article ID 743263

In this study with medical students in Tanzania the Arclight was found to perform as well as and was easier to use than a standard Heine direct ophthalmoscope.


Arclight ideal for performing red reflex test and included in WHO eye screening guidelines

The Arclight has been shown to be easy to learn and use for the ‘red reflex’ test and has subsequently been included in WHO newborn eye screening guidelines.


Mndeme, F.G., Mmbaga, B.T., Kim, M.J. et al. Red reflex examination in reproductive and child health clinics for early detection of paediatric cataract and ocular media disorders: cross-sectional diagnostic accuracy and feasibility studies from Kilimanjaro, Tanzania. Eye 35, 1347–1353 (2021)

On comparison of the diagnostic accuracy of four different screening tools for cataract and retinoblastoma, Arclight was found to have higher sensitivity than torchlight and be easy to learn and use by primary health care nurses.

WHO Recommendations on Maternal and Newborn Care for a Positive Postnatal Experience

The WHO recommends that all new-born babies receive fundal (red) reflex screening with Arclight proposed as the device of choice in their screening guidelines.




Arclight is an effective otoscope and included in WHO hearing screening guidelines

There is strong evidence for the Arclight otoscope being equivalent in practical function to more expensive traditional devices leading to it being highlighted in the WHO guidelines.


Hey SY, Buckley JC, Shahsavari S, et al. A mixed methods comparative evaluation of a low cost otoscope (Arclight) with a traditional device in twenty-one clinicians. Clin Otolaryngol. 2019; 44(6): 1101-1104

In this study with Ear, Nose and Throat (ENT) clinicians from NHS Tayside and Fife, Arclight was found to be equally effective in identifying common ear conditions and to take the same period of time to make the diagnosis.


WHO Primary Ear and Hearing Training Manual

The Arclight is highlighted as an effective hearing screening device within the WHO guidelines.





Further research

Multiple further peer-reviewed studies are featured in the Research section of the University of St Andrews’ Arclight Project website.